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Mining in Gwennap

 

 

Index to Articles

Gwennap Mining In The 19th Century 

The View From Carn Marth In 1837

The Bal Maidens Chant

1871 Tools of The Cornish Miner

Mines Of The Gwennap Area

Gwennap Mining Bounds

Gwennap miners mentioned in the 1842 Royal Commission Report [opens in another window]

Gwennap Miners on the Cornwall Miners Index [opens in another window]

Some More Gwennap Miners

Some Gwennap Stamp Engines

Mining Articles Etc. relating to Gwennap

The Gouch (Gook) or Cornish bonnet

Michael Loam, the Inventor of the Cornish Man Engine

 

 

gwennap shafts.jpg (114682 bytes)   gwennap mines.JPG (72680 bytes) 

Gwennap Mining In The 19th Century

Over 3,000 shafts are known to have existed in the old Gwennap parish and although today most have been capped there may still be shafts which lie in wait for the unwary amongst the gorse and bracken of the old mining district. The map above shows the known shafts in the United mines area of the parish. The aerial photograph is of the area of the Great Consolidated Mines. Below is a piece taken from Cornish Notes & Queries, 1906.

"In twenty one years the Consolidated Mines in Gwennap (in which parish the steam engine was first applied to real work) paid dividends amounting to 480.156, and Tresavean gave the adventurers nearly 350,000 in eleven years. For long periods together the mines in this parish ( which are of depth and have been worked for ages) produced ore to the value of 1,000 per day, and often much more. The value of the whole produce of this parish, in tin and copper in the last century, cannot it is estimated be less than 10,000,000."  

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The View From Carn Marth in 1837

The following is a graphic description of the Gwennap mining district  written by W. Jory HENWOOD, F.G.S., in 1837.  It is to be found in Volume V of the Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall;

"To one unaccustomed to a mining industry, the view from Carnmarth,  which is a rocky eminence of 757 feet, is full of novelty.  Over a surface neither mountainous or flat, but diversified from sea to sea by a constant  series of low, undulating hills and vales, the farmer and the miner seem to  be occupying the country in something like the confusion of warfare.  The situations of the Consolidated Mines, the United Mines, the Poldice Mine, etc., are marked out by spots a mile in length by half a mile in breadth, covered with what are termed 'deads' of the mine, i.e. slatey, poisonous rubbish, thrown up in ragged heaps, which at a distance give the place the  appearance of an encampment of soldiers' tents.  This lifeless mass follows the course of the main lode (p. 241) (usually east and west), and from it, in different directions, minor branches of the same barren rubbish diverge through the fertile country, like the streams of lava from a volcano.  The miner, being obliged to have a shaft for air at every hundred yards, and the stannary laws allowing him freely to pursue his game, his hidden path is commonly to be traced by a series of heaps of 'deads' which rise up among the green fields and among the grazing cattle like the workings of a mole. 

Steam-engines and whims (large capstans worked by two or four horses) are scattered about, and in the neighbourhood of the old as well as of the new workings are sprinkled, one by one, a number of small whitewashed miner's cottages, which being neither on a road nor near a road, have, to the eye of  a stranger, the appearance of having been dropt down apropos to nothing.

"Early in the morning the scene becomes animated.  From the scattered cottages, as far as the eye can reach, men, women and children of all ages begin to creep out; and it is curious to observe them all converging like bees towards the small hole at which they are to enter the mine.  On their arrival the women and children, whose duty it is to dress or clean the ore, repair to the rough sheds under which they work, while the men, having stripped and put on their underground clothes (which are coarse flannel dresses), one after another descend the several  shafts of the mine by perpendicular ladders to their respective levels or galleries.  As soon as they have all disappeared a most remarkable stillness prevails--scarcely a human being is to be seen.  The tall chimneys of the steam engines emit no smoke, and nothing is in motion but the great 'bobs' or levers of these gigantic machines.

"As soon as the men come to grass they repair to the engine-house, where they generally leave their underground clothes to dry, wash themselves in the warm water of the engine pool, and put on their clothes, which are always exceedingly decent.  By this time the maidens and little boys have also washed their faces, and the whole party migrate across the fields in groups and in different directions, to their respective homes. 

Generally speaking, they no look so clean and fresh and seem so happy that one would scarcely fancy they had worked all day in darkness and confinement.  The old men, tired with their work and sick of the follies and vagaries of the outside and the inside of this mining world ,plod their  way in sober silence probably thinking of their supper.  The younger men proceed talking and laughing, and where the grass is good they will sometimes stop and wrestle.  The big boys generally advance by playing at leap-frog; little urchins run on before to gain time to stand upon their heads, while the maidens, sometimes pleased and sometimes offended with what happens, smile or scream as circumstances may require. As the different members of the group approach  their respective cottages, their numbers, of course, diminish, and the individual survivor of a large family performs the last few yards on his journey by himself."

 

 

 the chant of a Gwennap bal maiden:

  " I can buddy, and I can rocky, and I can walk like a man,
I can lobby * and shaky and please the old Jan."
                                             
* Toss

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1871:  TOOLS OF THE CORNISH MINER

The Cornish miner had to find his way through rock of a very difficult character, sometimes consisting of solid granite, or elvan rock of excessive hardness. His tools were few, but they were well adapted to their job; consisting, besides those represented in the following engraving, of a small wedge or two of steel, denominated a gad, which is driven into the rock by the round end of the pick, for the purpose of splitting and detaching portions from the mass.

 

                              -

                                          1        2                                     3          4        5            6         7         8         9

The instruments: 1 is the pick of the miner: 2. the shovel: 3. the sledge: 4. the borer: 5. the claying bar: 6. the needle: aka the nail:   7. the scraper: 8. the tamping bar: 9. the tin cartridge for blasting where the rock is wet. Add to these a horn to carry his gunpowder, rushes to supply him with fuses, and a little touch-paper or slow fuse and you have the equipment used by the Cornish miner.  

 

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Mines Of  The Gwennap Area 

 

Important Disclaimer:

This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.

 

CORNWALL & DEVON Newspaper Sources

CT. Cornish Telegraph  - PG. Penzance Gazette - RCG. Royal Cornwall Gazette - SM. Sherborne & Yeovil Mercury 

PD. Plymouth & Devonport Weekly Journal  - PH. Plymouth Devonport & Stonehouse Herald  - PJ. Penzance Journal   

PN. Plymouth Devonport & Stonehouse News  -  WB. West Briton - WMN Western Morning News                      

WDM. Western Daily Mercury  - WM.  Weekly Mercury, Plymouth

 

 Name of Mine

Location

  First & Last References plus other information

Ale & Cakes

Near United Downs

mindat    SM 7.10.1782  -  WB 23.4.1841

Barrier Mine

0

0

Besowe

 SW 785444

0

Bell Vean

WMN  4.2.80

Boscawen

 Kenwyn Parish

0

Carharrack Mine

SW745413

mindat        

SM 5.8.1776  -  WB 9.9.1842

Carvannel Mine

0

WB6.4..32-16.9.1842  WMN 21.6.1860

Carvillo

0

RCG8.2.39

Cathedral Mine

SW717415

mindat

Coffinowla

0

SM  14.10.1793 - 21.10.1893

Consolidated Mines

 0

 mindat   

SM24.4.1786   RCG18.7.1928

Copper Hill Mine

0

mindat

Creegbrawse & Penkivel United

 0

0

Cupboard

0

SM  29.6.1778 -  SM7.10.1782

Cusvey

0

WB 20.9.1839

East Ale & Cake

0

RCG 25.5.1811 -  WB 2.3.1827

East Wheal Damsel

 SW741418

mindat    

WB 28.11.1828 - CT1.3.1871

East Wheal Virgin

Located about 700 m NW of Carharrack.

mindat

East Wheal Maid

0

WB 4.12.1840 - 16.9.1842

East Penstruthal

0

WB 6.4.1832

East Ting Tang

0

SM 14.10.1793 - 21.10.1893

East Wheal Virgin

0

SM7.11.1768 - 20.4.1795

Grambler & St Aubyn

0

WB 9.4.1841 - CT 25.11.1863

Great Briggan

0

0

Gwennap Great Copper Mines

0

SM 24.6.1793 

Gwennap Mining Company

0

WB 4.11.1825 - 5.1.1827

Little Cupboard

0

SM 29.6.1778

Mount Wellington Mine

SW761419

mindat

RCG 20.1.1937

New Cathedral

0

WDM 26.2.1880 - WMN 31.1.1881

New Clifford

0

0

New Consolidated

0

RCG 2.7.1814

North Penstruthal

0

WDM 26.2.1880 - CT17.4.1884

North Hallenbeagle & East Downs

SW 728446

0

North Wheal Damsel

See Tolcarne Mine

0

North Wheal Jewel

0

WB 4.12.1840 -16.9.1842

Pengenna Mine

 0

0

Pennance Consols                     (formerly Wheal Amelia)

0

Pennance Consols 3.JPG (41609 bytes)  

WMN28.1.1874 - 31.1.1874

 Penstruthal Mine

0

WB 21.10.1825 - WDM 18.2.1878

 Poldice

 0

mindat

SM 31.8.1767 - WB 25.4.1817

 Poldice Great & Little

0

SM 8.10.1770 - 15.10.1770.

 Poldory

near United Mines

mindat

SM 29.6.1778 - CT 1.3.1871

 Roselabby

0

SM 26.4.1802 - 

 Rose Lobby

0

SM 20.8.1770 - PG24.5.1843

 St Day

0

WB12.6.1835

 St Day United

0

PD 2.6.1853 - CT 26.9.1866

 South Ale & Cakes

0

WDM 11.1.1877

 South Wheal Buller

0

WB 6.8.1830 - CT 18.1.1865

 South Penstruthal Mine

0

WDM 26.2.1880 - CT 17.4.1884

 South Poldory Mine

0

WB 21.7.1837

 Ting Tang & Clifford Amalgamated

 SW 730410

mindat

SM 23.3.1772 - CT 19.1.1870

 Tolcarne Mine

SW725422

mindat

SM 14.11.1791 - PG24.5.43

 Tolgullow United Mine

0

CT 24.1.1889 - CT 31.1.1889

 Treviskey Mine

0

SM1.6.1789 - 

  Tresavean & Tretharrup

 SW721394

mindat

SM 26.11.1764 - RCG 12.9.1928

 Treskerby Mine

0

SM24.4.1786 - RCG 18.7.1928

 Treskerby Adit

0

SM 7.11.1768 - 14.11.1768.

 Tretharup

0

WB 8.11.1833 - WDM 20.5.1871

  Trethellan Mine

SW717392

mindat

SM 8.5.1786 - WMN 11.6.1860

 Treviskey Mine

0

SM 1.6.1789 - PD 24.8.1848

 Treviskey & Barrier Mine

0

PD 26.11.1846 - PD 28.3.1850

  West Clifford United Mine

See Ting Tang Mine

CT 22.11.1865 - WMN22.4.1874

  West Wheal Damsel

SW725410

mindat

  West Wheal Jewell

See Tolcarne

0

  West Wheal Virgin

Located about 700 m NW of Carharrack

mindat

  Wheal Amelia

0

WB 31.5.1833 - 16.9.1842

  Wheal Andrew

SW761419

mindat   WB 26.9.1834 - PG10.11.1847

  Wheal Beauchamp

0

RCG 10.9.1803 - WB 15.11.1839

  Wheal Bell / Bell Mine

0

SM 10.12.1781 - PG 22.10.1845

  Wheal Brewer

0

WB 9.12.1836 -  PJ 15.12.1847

  Wheal Burrow

0

SM 14.10.1793 - 21.9.1793

  Wheal Bush, Creegbrawse

 SW 737436

0

  Wheal Clifford

0

mindat

WB 31.5.1833 - WMN11.4.76

 Wheal Chance

0

SM 27.2.1792 - WMN 29.4.1874

 Wheal Clinton

0

SM 14.10.1793 -  WB -16.9.42

 Wheal Comford

0

PJ 16.6.1847 - WMN 22.1.1883

 Wheal Comford & North Tresavean

0

WMN 26.1.1880 - CT 5.1.1888

 Wheal Cusgarne

0

SM 12.10.1772

  Wheal Damsel

SW728417

mindat

SM 27.2.1792 - WDM 14.3.1871 

 Wheal Fortune

0

SM 25.4.1785 - PG17.5.1843

  Wheal Gorland

 SW 730427

mindat    Wheal Gorland Web Site

SM 11.5.1772 - WB1.7.1842

  Wheal Grambler

near Ninnis

mindat

WB 26.8.1836 - WB 25.2.1842

  Wheal Henry

 SW 753427

0

  Wheal Hope

0

RCG 2.7.1808 - PG 7.5.1845

  Wheal Jewell

SW735421

mindat  SM 11.5.1772 - PD 18.5.1848

  Wheal Looney

0

RCG 17.9.1841

  Wheal Lovelace

0

WB20.9.39

  Wheal Luney

0

RCG 17.9.1841 - PG22.9.1841

  Wheal Maid

SW744421

mindat  RCG 24.1.1807 - WB 20.7.1827

  Wheal Man Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - SM 25.1.1796

  Wheal Moyle

0

WB 23.9.1836

  Wheal Muttrell                                     [see Wheal Gorland Web]

0

mindat  SM 30.12.1793 - 21.1.1799

 Wheal Trinity

0

RCG 4.7.1835

 Wheal Unity Adit Adventure

0

SM 20.8.1770

 Wheal Unity   See Wheal Gorland Web

0

mindat

 Wheal Unity Wood

 SW 735437

mindat

 Wheal Union

0

WB 9.2.1827 - 2.3.1827

 Wheal Virgin

see Consolidated Mines

0

 United Downs Mine

0

mindat

 United Mines

 SW 748416

mindat

 Wheal Virgin

0

SM 9.11.1772  -  PG 1.2.1843

 West Wheal Damsel

0

WB 28.11.1828  -  CT 5.4.1871

 West Wheal Hope

0

RCG 25.5.1811 -  15.8.1812

 West Wheal Jewel

0

WB 26.2.1836  -  WDM 3.3.1880

 West Penstruthal

0

WB 6.8.1830  -  WB 6.4.1832

 West Poldice

0

WDM 29.4.1874  -  CT 14.1.1886

 West Ting Tang

0

SM 14.10.1793  -  WB 1.1.1841

 West Trethellan

0

PJ 2.2.1848  -  PD 15.2.1849

 West(ern) Wheal Virgin

0

SM 5.8.1776  -  PG 1.2.1843

 White Works Mine

0

WB 20.9.1839

 Wood Engine Mine

0

RCG 1.3.1828

0

0

0

0

Back to Index

0

Gwennap Area Mining Bounds

gwennap bounds sale.jpg (57288 bytes) 

Click to see larger version.

A typical advert for the sale of shares in a Cornish mining bounds. Sherborne and Yeovil Mercury 21/01/1799.

 

 

Important Disclaimer:

This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.

 

CORNWALL & DEVON Newspaper Sources

CT. Cornish Telegraph  - PG. Penzance Gazette - RCG. Royal Cornwall Gazette - SM. Sherborne & Yeovil Mercury 

   PD. Plymouth & Devonport Weekly Journal  - PH. Plymouth Devonport & Stonehouse Herald  - PJ. Penzance Journal  

   PN. Plymouth Devonport & Stonehouse News  -  WB.  West Briton - WMN.  Western Morning News                                  WDM.  Western Daily Mercury - WM Weekly Mercury Plymouth

 

0

 Bessow Bounds

0

RCG  5.11.03

 Benagwidden Bounds

0

RCG  5.11.03

Busveal & Carnmarth Bounds

0

WB 2.9.1842 - 9.9.1842

Carn Single Bounds

0

WB  6.8.1830

Carharrack 13 Pair Bounds

0

SM 7.1.1799  -  21.1.1799

Carnmarth Bounds (Gwennap)

0

SM 20.10.1800 - 27.10.1800

Chygenter Bounds (Gwennap)

0

SM 20.10.1800  -  27.10.1800

Chycoose Downs Bounds

0

SM 7.1.1799  -  21.1.1899

Clomen Dish Bounds

0

RCG 5.11.1803

Cusgarne Common Bounds

0

RCG31.8.1811  - 4.1.1812

Croft Oven Bounds

0

WB6.8.1830

Croft An Wins Bounds

0

SM12.10.1795 - 19.10.1895

Croft An Win Vean Bounds

0

SM12.10.1795 - 19.10.1895

Criglaze Bounds

0

WB 6.8.1830

Cross an Weeth Bounds

0

SM  5.11.1803

Cupboard Bounds

0

RCG 5.11.1803

East & West Bendy Bounds

0

WB 6.8.1830

East Wheal Bendy Bounds

0

SM 12.10.1795 - 19.10.1795

East Chygenter Bounds 

0

SM 12.10.1795 - 19.10.1795

Eastern Wheal Dagger Bounds

0

RCG 5.11.1803

Eastern Gibbon Bounds

0

RCG 5.11. 1803

Eastern White Holt Bounds

0

RCG 5.11.1803

East Wheal Fat Bounds

0

WB 2.9.1842 - 9.9.1842

East Wheal Lowson Tin Bounds

0

WB 3.11.1826

Gassick Bounds

0

WB 2.9.1842 - 9.9.1842

Good Fortune Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 25.1.1796

Good Fortune by the Rounds Bounds

0

SM 25.1.1796

Goon Ennis Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1792 - 9.5.1791

Goon Gumpus Bounds 

0

RCG 5.11.1803

Great Goodluck Bounds

0

RCG 5.11.1803

Great Killie Bounds

0

WB 2.9.1842 - 9.9.1842

Great Nancy Crowse Bounds

0

SM 7.1.1799 - 21.1.1899

Great Wheal Gordon Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 25.1.1796

Great Wheal Whidden Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 25.1.1796

Great Poldice Bounds

0

SM 7.1.1799 - 21.1.1799

Gwennap Little Bounds

0

RCG 5.11.1803

Hale Bosveal Bounds

0

SM 12.10.1795-19.10.1795

Kelgey Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791-SM 25.1.1796

Little Nancigollan Bounds

0

RCG 5.11.1803

Little Cupboard Bounds

0

RCG 5.11.1803

Little Wheal Dower Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 9.5.1791

Little Wheal Gordon Bounds

0

SM2.5.1791 - SM25.1.1796

Little Killie Bounds

0

WB 2.9.1842 - 9.9.1842

Little Wheal Nicken Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 9.5.1791

Little Trevince Bounds Under

0

SM 7.1.1799 - 21.1.1799

Little Wheal Vroe Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - SM25.1.1796

Loome Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 9.5.1791

Menanheere Bounds

0

RCG5.11.03

Mine Bounds on the Stream

0

RCG5.11.03

Nancegollan Bounds

0

RCG 5.11.1803

Nancigollan Bounds

0

WB 2.9.1842 - 9.9.1842

North Wheal Small Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791-9.5.1791

North Wheal Venton Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 25.1.1796

One Pair Bounds by John May's House

0

SM 5.11.1803

Other Mine Bounds on the Stream

0

RCG 5.11.1803

Paden An Hals Bounds

0

WB 2.9.1842 - 9.9.1842

Parc an Chy Bounds

0

RCG 14.9.1927 - RCG16.11.1827

Park Brawse Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 9.5.1791

Park Steven Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 9.5.1891

Pell Bounds

0

RCG 5.11.1803

Pennance Common Tin Bounds

0

RCG 31.8.1 811 - 4.1.1812

 Quick Come By Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 25.1.1796

South Wheal Hawkes Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 25.1.1796

South Wheal Plover Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 25.1.1796

South Wheal Small Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 9.5.1791

Speedwell Bounds 

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 25.1.1796

Speedwell by the Round Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 25.1.1796

Tolcarne Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - WB 9.9.1842

Tolcarne Stamps & Stream Bounds

0

SM 20.10.1800 - 27.10.1800

Torran Carren Bounds

0

SM 12.10.1795 - 19.10.1795

Trefusis & Wentworth, of of 3 pair of Bounds 

0

WB 6.8.1830

Tresamble Downs & Croft Bounds

0

SM 7.1.1799 - 21.1.1799

Wheal Try Bounds

0

WB 2.9.1842 - 9.9.1842

Twelve Heads Stream Bounds

0

WB 2.9.1842 - 9.9.1842

Two Cracks Bounds

0

SM 7.1.1799 - 21.1.1799

 Wheal An Call Bounds (Gwennap)

0

RCG 15.3.1817 - 22.3.1817

Wheal An Barries Bounds

0

RCG 5.11.1803

Wheal Bargus Bounds

0

SM 7.1.1799 - 21.1.1899.

 Wheal Bosveal Bounds

0

SM 12.10.1795 - 27.10.1800

 Wheal Careless Bounds

0

SM 12.10.1795 -19.10.1795

 Wheal Carloose Bounds

0

SM 12.10.1795 - 19.10.1795

Wheal Coyne Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 9.5.1791

Wheal Corne Bounds

0

RCG 5.11.1803

Wheal Crean Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 9.5. 1791

Wheal Crease Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 25.1.1796

Wheal Creegmoor Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 9.5.1791

Wheal Creek Bounds

0

WB 2.9. 1842 - 9.9.1842

Cregewall Bounds

0

RCG 5.11.1803

Wheal Crenga Bounds

0

SM 25.1.1796

Wheal Crings Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 9.5.1791

Wheal Daisy Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 25.1.1796

Wheal Dobnan Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 25.1.1796

Wheal Drew Bounds

0

RCG 5.11.1803

Wheal Drunkard Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 9.5.1891

Wheal Due Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 9.5.1791

Wheal Duthan Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 25.1.1796

Wheal Eagle Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 25.1.1796

Wheal Fat Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 9.5.1791

Wheal Fatt Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 25.1.1796

Wheal Free Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 9.5.1791

Wheal Fry Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 9.5.1891

Wheal Gallis Tin Bounds

0

WB 3.11.1826

Wheal Garron Bounds

0

SM 12.10.1795 - 19.10.1895

Wheal Garrows Bounds

0

WB 6.8.1830

Wheal Grease Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 25.1.1796

Wheal Greeb Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 25.1.1796

Wheal Growse Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - CT 14.2.1866

Wheal Harbyer Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 9.5.1791

Wheal Hawke Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - SM 25.1.1796

Wheal Here Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - SM25.1.1796

Wheal Hop Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 9.5.1791

Wheal Fox Bounds

0

RCG 5.11.1803

Wheal Kite Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 9.5.1791

Wheal Larke Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - SM 25.1.1796

Wheal Levell Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - SM 25.1.1796

Wheal Mehale Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 -  SM 25.1.1796

Wheal Menin Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - SM 25.1.1796

Wheal Moor Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - SM 25.1.1796

Wheal Muttrell Bounds

0

SM 7.1.1799-21.1.1799

Wheal Negless

0

SM 2.5.1791-9.5.1791

Wheal Mithan Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791-9.5.1791

Wheal North Bounds

0

WB 2.9.1842 - 9.9.1842

Wheal Peber Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 25.1.1796

Wheal Picas Bounds

0

RCG 5.11.1803

Wheal Pitcher Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 25.1.1796

 Wheal Pink

 SW 724427

mindat

SM 14.11.1791 - WB15.11.1839

Wheal Plump Bounds

0

WB 6.8.1830

Wheal Ponds Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1789 - 25.1.1796

Wheal Pool Bounds 

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 9.5.1791

Wheal Pope Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791-9.5.91

Wheal Pronter Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 25.1.1796

Wheal Providence

0

RCG 20.5.1836

 Wheal Quick

See Wheal Jewell

SM 15.3.1779 - 13.12.1802

 Wheal Rapsey Bounds

0

SM 7.1.1799 - 21.1.1899

 Wheal Reek Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 25.1.1796

Wheal Reeth

0

RCG 5.11.1803

Wheal Rodney 

0

SM 10.12.1781 - 27.2.1792

Wheal Rose Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 25.1.1796

                     Wheal Rose

0

                     Wheal Squire

 SW 748416

Wheal St Aubyn

0

SM 26.4.1802 - WB 29.3.1839

Wheal St Mathew Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 25.1.1796

Wheal An Sawsen

0

WB 2.9.1842 - 9.9.1842

Wheal Shut

0

SM 20.8.1770 - 15.9.1783

Wheal Smooth Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 25.1.1796

Wheal Sperris Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 25.1.1796

Wheal Spinster

0

SM 26.4.1802 - WB 16.9.1842

Wheal Squire

0

SM 3.2.1800 - WB 4.9.1840

Wheal Star Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 25.1.1796

Wheal Sterrians Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 25.1.1796

Wheal Strase Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791-9.5.1791

Wheal Toll Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 9.5.1791

Wheal Tonge Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 9.5.1791

Wheal Trelawney

0

WB 28.10.1825 - 26.10.1827

Wheal Trevithick Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 9.5.1791

Mrs Trewatha's Moor Bounds

0

SM 7.1.1799 - 21.1.1799

Trewithan Clift Bounds

0

RCG 5.11.1703

Wheal Tye Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 25.1.1796

Wheal Vein Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 9.5.1791

Velanvounder Barkwarthas Bounds

0

SM 7.1.1799 - 21.1.1799

Wheal Virisack Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 9.5.1791

Vogue Bounds

0

SM 20.10.1800  -  WB 9.9.1842

Wheal Vor Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 25.1.1796

Wheal West Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 25.1.1796

West Wheal Bendy Bounds

0

SM 12.10.1795 - 19.10.1795

West Chygenter Bounds

0

SM 12.10.1795 - 19.10.1795

Western Wheal Dagger Bounds

0

RCG 5.11.1803

Western Gibbon's Bounds

0

RCG 5.11.1803

Western White Holt Bounds

0

RCG 5.11.1803

West Wheal Lowson Tin Bounds

0

WB 3.11.1826

Western Wheal Tonge Bounds

0

SM 2.5.1791 - 9.5.1791

Wheal Widden Bounds

SM 2.5.1791  - 25.1.1796

0

Back to Index

0

Some Gwennap Miners

CORNWALL & DEVON Newspaper Sources

 CT. Cornish Telegraph  - PG. Penzance Gazette - RCG. Royal Cornwall Gazette - SM. Sherborne and Yeovil Mercury 

 PD. Plymouth & Devonport Weekly Journal  - PH. Plymouth Devonport & Stonehouse Herald  - PJ .Penzance Journal 

       PN. Plymouth Devonport & Stonehouse News  -  WB. West Briton - WMN. Western Morning News                                     WDM. Western Daily Mercury  - WM.  Weekly Mercury Plymouth

 

Capt. J. BARAGWANNA  

0

RCG 13.3.1813

M. BAWDEN 

0

CT 17.1.1866

C.N BEATER 

0

RCG 2.1.1830

A & P BLAMEY  

0

RCG 27.10.1937

Capt. Jos. FRANCIS 

0

WB 11.1.1828

Capt. William FRANCIS 

0

 RCG 20.12.1806  -   WB 3.12.1830

Colan HARVEY 

0

PG 28.1.1846 -   CT 31.5.1871

Capt. Thomas MICHELL,

0

RCG 20.8.1808

Capt MORCOM 

0

PG 27.10.1841

Mr SAMPSON  Engineer:  

0

RCG 5.11.1803

Capt SAMPSON 

0

WB 17.4.1840

0

0

0

Back to Index

 

Some Gwennap Stamps

CORNWALL & DEVON Newspaper Sources

CT. Cornish Telegraph  - PG. Penzance Gazette - RCG. Royal Cornwall Gazette - SM. Sherborne & Yeovil Mercury 

 PD. Plymouth & Devonport Weekly Journal  - PH. Plymouth Devonport & Stonehouse Herald  - PJ .Penzance Journal   

PN. Plymouth Devonport & Stonehouse News  -  WB .West Briton - WMN. Western Morning News -                                        WDM.  Western Daily Mercury  - WM.  Weekly Mercury Plymouth

 

CHYCOOSE STAMPING MILLS 

0

SM 28.5.1787

CUSGARNE STAMPS  

0

WB 22.6.1838

CUSGARNE, 

0

RCG 19.3.1814 - 2.4.1814

HICK'S TENEMENT- Cusgarne, 

0

SM 18.2.1771

LANARTH STAMPS 

0

SM 26.3.1759

ROBINS STAMPING MILL 

0

RCG 22.2.1812 - RCG 29.2.1812

TREVARTH LAITY STAMPS

0

SM 18.2.1782 - 25.2.1782

Back to Index

Articles Etc.

 

CORNWALL & DEVON Newspaper Sources

CT. Cornish Telegraph - PG. Penzance Gazette - RCG. Royal Cornwall Gazette - SM. Sherborne & Yeovil Mercury 

 PD Plymouth & Devonport Weekly Journal  - PH. Plymouth Devonport & Stonehouse Herald  - PJ. Penzance Journal   

PN. Plymouth Devonport & Stonehouse News  -  WB. West Briton - WMN. Western Morning News                          WDM. Western Daily Mercury  - WM. Weekly Mercury Plymouth

 

MINING DISTRICT OF GWENNAP AND REDRUTH AND ITS NEIGHBOURHOOD

WB 2.8.1839(3a)  WB 20.9.1839(3a)  WB 15.11.1839(3ab)

 

GWENNAP MINING DISTRICT MAP - R Symons PG2.4.45(1a)

 

 

The Gugh (Gook) or Cornish bonnet

the gugh (cornish Bonnet.jpg (46892 bytes)

Most women who worked 'out-of-doors' wore these bonnets to protect them from both rain and sun. Their local name was "gook" and they were made of a strong, cambric type linen that could be boiled and starched. The crown was made of a double thickness of quilted  linen, each channel in the fabric threaded through with a soft cord. These were  arranged either simply in lines, or in a more ornate combination of  thick and thin stripes, sometimes in a special pattern for each different locality. The brim was stiffened with webbing so as to stand proud of the face in order to shade the skin from strong sunshine and to prevent dust falling into the eyes. At the base of the neck the material flounced out in a kind of skirt, to protect the nape of the neck from the same hazards.

A double row of stitching  marked where this joined the crown and cords were threaded through to tie securely under the chin. In winter the bal maids often wore gooks  made out of the darker and heavier linen union,  but mostly they preferred to wear the white. Mine 'Captains' were identified by their white coats, and women  in charge of the household often vied with one another to get their families' linens whiter then white, as did those of the fishermen who also favoured both white smocks and trousers. On fine days the ladies of Gwennap placed their clean wet washing into flaques [willow baskets] and carried it to the slopes of Carn Marth. There they laid it out over the gorse bushes to dry in the sun and wind.

a.  wpe27.gif (182085 bytes) b. wpe21.gif (110350 bytes) c.  wpe25.gif (106963 bytes)

The Cornish Bal Maidens wore their gooks to work but at the weekends they liked to 'dress up' and often wore very fancy hats with feathers in the side. The three cartoons above were drawn by George Seymour. They were published in the 'Mining Journal' of the 1870's and are entitled:        a. "At the end of the day."       b. "Bal maiden Friday"    c. "Bal maiden Saturday"                        Seymour was an eminent mining engineer who became the first President of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, but he was also an acute observer of the habits and customs of the idiosyncratic Cornish mine workers. 

  

1. fishwife group.jpg (251632 bytes)  2.     3 the gugh (cornish Bonnet.jpg (46892 bytes)   4 st just bonnet.jpg (57624 bytes) 

 5 bonnets in the fields.jpg (69352 bytes)    6 flower pickers bonnet.jpg (232257 bytes)   7

A Collection of Bonnets

1. Newlyn Town Fishwives on 'The Cliff'. 

2. The Bal Maids of Dolcoath Mine : c 1890.

[The man in the white coat is the mine manager, Mr Thomas].

3.  Styles of  West Penwith, North Cornwall, Camborne, & St Agnes- Scorrier.

4. St Just in Penwith.

5. & 6. Mount's Bay, West Penwith Flower Pickers

7. Scilly Kelp Burners

 

 

Michael Loam

Inventor of the Cornish Man Engine

MI LOAM Michael & Margaret & Eliz Ann ROWE.JPG (64246 bytes)

The gravestone of Michael Loam in Gwennap Church burial ground.

The Man Engine

A mechanical lift for lowering and raising miners in a shaft by means of a reciprocating vertical rod of heavy timber with platforms at intervals, or of two such rods, moving in opposite directions. In the former case stationary platforms are placed in the shaft, so that the miner in descending  for instance, can step from the moving platform at the end of the down stroke and step back upon the next platform below at the beginning of the next down stroke. When two rods are employed, the miner steps from the platform on one rod to that on the other.

(From Glossary of Mining Terms by Rossiter W. Raymond, 1881)  

To see a working graphic of the engine click here

Cost of Man-Engine.

The cost of a man-engine, with driving engine, complete to a depth of 200 fathoms, exclusive of the cost of the shaft itself, cannot be taken at less than 2000 to 2500. The interest on the larger sum at 5 per cent, with 10 per cent. added for depreciation of plant and repairs, amounts to 375 per annum. The cost of coal and attendance for driving the engine, for oil, grease, etc. will amount to, say, 250 per annum in addition. The labour of climbing from an average depth of 100 fathoms cannot be taken at less than 1 hour daily, or with 3 shifts of 50 men at an average of 5d, the amount lost by climbing will be each day 62s. 6d  or, for a year of 260 working days, say, 800, showing a clear gain of 175. For a depth of 300 fathoms the advantage is many times greater, since the. exhaustion of the men from the labour of climbing and the time occupied will increase in a geometrical ratio. However, setting aside all calculations of cost, it is only necessary to look at the men 'who have just come up by ladders from deep mines to see that some mode of relieving them from such excessive toil is most necessary.

The man-engine originated in Germany where it is called the "fahr-kunst."The idea occurred to some of the German miners, who saw the reciprocating action of the pump rods, to attach steps to it, and this was actually carried into practice. In Cornwall the idea of a man-engine was first carried into effect by Mr. Loam, in 1835, at Tresavean Mine in Gwennap. The man-engine was so great an advantage to all concerned, both workmen and employers, that it would soon have become generally used in deep mines but for its great expense. But the improvements in the manufacture of wire rope within the past 25 years have been so great, that the chief danger in connection with the use of lifting-cages or skips has now disappeared. And the cost of putting in a " skip way," as well as of working the skip, is far less than that of erecting and working a man-engine, so that it is hardly likely any more will be erected.

From "Principles of Metal Mining" by J.H. Collins F.G.S.

The following comes from the West Briton 18 November 1842

The TRESAVEAN MAN ENGINE A CURE FOR THE LIVER COMPLAINT
"There was never a better machine than that at Tresavean mine, invented for the miner," said an old and venerable man, a short time ago, "it will do wonders. Old Doctor ___ of Truro, used to say that the average age of our miners scarcely exceeded 29 years, and he attributed it entirely to climbing up from the deep mines; and in that opinion I perfectly agree. Nor do I doubt but the miners will now live very much longer than they have been used to.

Besides this, see what it will do for the liver complaint. Now, when I was young, and the mines were not so deep, I scarcely heard of such a disorder; nor is it known any where hardly but in Cornwall. I will tell you how the disorder is brought on; when the men climb up so far, you observe the whole frame is in confusion, and the heart beats so violently up against the liver as in time to beat a hole into it, and follow in course the liver complaint." At this expression the old man's auditor burst into a fit of laughter, which much incensed him; and he turned on the heel and said - "you young gentleman may laugh at what you call foolish, but what we old people know true by experience; and I say again I believe MR. MICHAEL LOAM'S Man Machine will do more good for the liver complaint than all the pills in Truro."

Cornish Newspaper Reports on Man Engines:

Available at the Cornwall Studies Centre, Redruth

Royal Cornwall Gazette: 24.11.1837 / 6.4.1838 / 31.12.1841 / 7.10.1842 / 21.10.1842 / 6.1.1843

West Briton: 5.10.1838 / 19.10.1838 / 13.9.1839 / 11.10.1839 / 25.10.1839 / 15.11.1839 / 14.1.1842 / 11.2.1842 / 18.11.1842 / 6.1.1843 /

Penzance Gazette: 19.7.1843 / 4.10.1843 / 3.7.1844 / 25.12. 1844 / 19.2. 1845 / 21.1. 1846